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Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis (Steps and Cell Division)

The division of cells takes place in either of the two ways, Mitosis or Meiosis. Mitosis and meiosis both occur in eukaryotic cells and involve the separations of the chromosomes. Both the process differs from each other and to know the facts associated with mitosis vs meiosis is very important but first of all one should know what these processes are. 


What is Mitosis?


It is the process of cell division in which division of nucleus and duplication of chromosomes takes place. The process of cytokinesis follows mitosis. In cytokinesis the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of the cells divide. This results in the formation of two daughter cells that are each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell and these are called diploid cells. Mitosis occurs in Somatic cells or Soma or Body cells.


What is Meiosis?


Meiosis takes place in germ cells or the sex cells of the body. The process of meiosis results in the formation of four daughter cells which have half the number of chromosomes of the parent cells and hence are called as haploid cells.


Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis


What's are the major Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis?


Mitosis and meiosis are the processes by which cells in living things divide to produce new cells. Mitosis is the division of a cell into two genetically identical daughter cells.


  • Mitosis is a biological process where a single cell divides into two cells. It is the main mechanism by which single-celled organisms reproduce and occurs in all cells. 


  • Meiosis is a type of cell division in which a single cell reproduces into four new cells. Each of the four cells is genetically different from the original parent cell.


  • In mitosis the chromosomes are duplicated and the genetic material is redistributed. 


  • Meiosis is a type of cell division where chromosomes are shuffled and genetic material is reduced, resulting in the formation of eggs and sperm cells.


  • Mitosis and meiosis are the two main cell division processes in living organisms. 


  • Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in a cell with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell, which is the basis for sexual reproduction. 


  • Meiosis produces cells that are genetically different from the parent cell, which is why meiosis is a cellular process that is the basis for sexual reproduction.


  • Mitosis and meiosis are processes where cells divide to form new cells. Mitosis occurs in cells that are not specialized. It results in daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell. Meiosis is cell division that results in offspring that have half the number of chromosomes as their parent.

    

  • The process of mitosis occurs in all the organisms whereas that of meiosis occurs only in human beings, plants, animals and fungi.

    

  • Mitosis produces two daughter cells whereas in meiosis there are four daughter cells.

    

  • Mitosis takes place in somatic cells, but meiosis occurs in sex cells or germ cells, that is, the sperms and the ovum.

    

  • Meiosis is sexual division whereas mitosis is asexual division.

    

  • The cells produced are genetically identical in case of mitosis but in that of meiosis, they are different.

    

  • The number of divisions in mitosis is one and that in meiosis in two.


Mitosis Steps


It is a kind of a division of nucleus. It is a division of production of two daughter cells which are identical. This method is done by eukaryotic cell. The similar method to mitosis is cytokinesis


Eukaryotes are single celled as well as multi cellular organisms; mitosis is done in both of them for asexual reproduction. Most commonly it is seen in plants. 


Many people have spider as well as airplane plants and mitosis are seen very commonly in these plants.


The steps of mitosis are:


1. Interphase


2. Prophase


3. Metaphase


4. Anaphase


5. Telophase


6. Cytokinesis


Meiosis Steps


Meiosis is a process where a diploid cell divides twice to create four haploid cells. This occurs during the production of reproductive cells such as sperm and egg cells. 


Meiosis I is where one of the two copies of each chromosome is separated into different daughter cells, while Meiosis II is where the sister chromatids are separated. 


When cells divide, they replicate their DNA before dividing in order to ensure the same genetic material in both daughter cells.


The major steps of meiosis are as follows:


1. Interphase,


2. Prophase I,


3. Metaphase I,


4. Anaphase I,


5. Telophase I,


6. Prophase II,


7. Metaphase II,


8. Anaphase II


9. Telophase II.


Cell Division and Mitosis


Cell is the basic building block of any organism. All life forms on earth are made of cells. Some of them would be single celled organisms and some other would be multi-cellular organisms. 


For example, most of the bacteria are single celled organisms and they rely on this single cell for all of their functions. Amoeba is another example of a single cell organism. 


Multi-cellular organisms like human will have many cells and to us these cells will be more of functional parts rather than the entire life part. 


Each of the cells is given different importance and they are prioritized based on their functions. There might be more than 100 trillion cells in a human body. 


In ancient times when the human body was bulkier, the cell numbers rose very high and they had more than 1000 trillion cells.


Cell division is a simple process of divining a cell to produce two daughter nuclei. In a briefer term, it could be stated as the reproduction way for a cell. 


As the cell gets old, it tends to divide itself into two to give smaller and younger daughter cells, which has to mature to the destined size. This is the main and in fact the only way for cells to replicate themselves. This division if signified with the cell size. 


Cells are given a particular size to grow. They grow until that size holding and expanding together. 


When they have attained a proper size, this means they have attained the age to divide themselves and immediately they undergo cell division. This cell division will yield now smaller cells, which are smaller than the parent larger cell. Now they grow again to a completely adult cell.


Cells might be with or without nucleus too. Cells that does not have nucleus are called as the prokaryotic cells and those, which have nucleus, are called as the eukaryotic cells. 


Cell division in the nucleus-lacking prokaryotic cells is taking place through a process of fission, also called a binary fission. 


The cells simply divide themselves into two and keep multiplying as and when necessary. This process is a bit complicated in the eukaryotic cells.


Cell divisions in eukaryotic cells have four stages. The first stage is the Cell growth phase, the second stage is the replication phase along with DNA synthesis, the third stage is the rapid growth phase and the fourth stage is the mitosis. The third stage is a rapid cell growth preparing the cell for its fourth stage.


Cell Division and Meiosis


Meiosis is the process of making gametes or sex cells. It is a form of cell division that occurs only in sexually reproducing organisms. 


Meiosis includes two divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis I reduces the number of chromosomes by half, whereas meiosis II produces gametes with one set of chromosomes each.


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